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Giardia (Giardia Canis)

 

We have been seeing quite a few dogs present with Giardia here at the clinic. In response to these cases and to provide better information for our clients, we have put together some information on Giardia. The pages below were taken from answers.com.

The most common symptoms of a giardia infection is diarrhea; and younger animals are usually affected. The diarrhea may be acute, intermittent, or chronic. Usually the infected animals will not lose their appetite, but they may lose weight. The feces are often abnormal, being pale, having a bad odor, and appearing greasy. In the intestine, Giardia prevents proper absorption of nutrients, damages the delicate intestinal lining, and interferes with digestion.

Giardia is usually contracted by drinking water that contains the organism Giardia Lamblia. Your dog may have drank out of contaminated pond (wildlife is believed to be the number one source of these organisms) or from water contaminated by another infected dog or cat. Many canoeists and hikers have had bouts with Giardia, it is common to both people and pets, most sportsman get it from drinking stream water contaminated by wildlife.

We have a very simple test here at the clinic. If you have a new puppy, or if your dog is having diarrhea, we suggest bringing a fecal sample into the clinic for us to test. Giardia is easily controlled and treated once it is diagnosed

Giardia is a zoonosis which means that is can be passed from your pets to you, so if your pet is diagnosed with Giardia please make sure wash your hands thoroughly pick up and dispose of fecal matter (wear gloves if possible), especially if you have small children or elderly foks living with you and your pet.

Below is a very informative article written by Carol A. Turkington which gives more information on Giardia, it also contains some valuable links to the CDC and WHO.

 

461 Patriots Road, Rte 2A

Templeton Common

Templeton, Ma 01468 Telephone: 978.939.9348
FAX: 978.939.2048
E-mail: nygardvetclinic@comcast.net

 

 

Giardiasis

 

Definition

 

Giardiasis is a common intestinal infection spread by eating contaminated food, drinking contaminated water, or through direct contact with the organism that causes the disease, Giardia lamblia. Giardiasis is found throughout the world and is a common cause of traveller's diarrhea. In the United States it is a growing problem, especially among children in childcare centers.

 

Description

 

Giardia is one of the most common intestinal parasites in the world, infecting as much as 20% of the entire population of the earth. It is common in overcrowded developing countries with poor sanitation and a lack of clean water. Recent tests have found Giardia in 7% of all stool samples tested nationwide, indicating that this disease is much more widespread than was originally believed. It has been found not only in humans, but also in wild and domestic animals.

Giardiasis is becoming a growing problem in the United States, where it affects three times more children than adults. In recent years, giardiasis outbreaks have been common among people in schools or daycare centers and at catered affairs and large public picnic areas. Children can easily pass on the infection by touching contaminated toys, changing tables, utensils, or their own feces, and then touching other people. For this reason, infection spreads quickly through a daycare center or institution for the developmentally disabled.

Unfiltered streams or lakes that may be contaminated by human or animal wastes are a common source of infection. Outbreaks can occur among campers and hikers who drink untreated water from mountain streams. While 20 million Americans drink unfiltered city water from streams or rivers, giardiasis outbreaks from tainted city water have been rare. Most of these problems have occurred not due to the absence of filters, but because of malfunctions in city water treatment plants, such as a temporary drop in chlorine levels. It is possible to become infected in a public swimming pool, however, since Giardia can survive in chlorinated water for about 15 minutes. During that time, it is possible for an individual to swallow contaminated pool water and become infected.

 

Causes and symptoms

 

Giardiasis is spread by food or water contaminated by the Giardia lamblia protozoan organism found in the human intestinal tract and feces. When the cysts are ingested, the stomach acid degrades the cysts and releases the active parasite into the body. Once within the body, the parasites cling to the lining of the small intestine, reproduce, and are swept into the fecal stream. As the liquid content of the bowel dries up, the parasites form cysts, which are then passed in the feces. Once excreted, the cysts can survive in water for more than three months. The parasite is spread further by direct fecal-oral contamination, such as can occur if food is prepared without adequate hand-washing, or by ingesting the cysts in water or food.

Giardiasis is not fatal, and about two-thirds of infected people exhibit no symptoms. Symptoms will not occur until between one and two weeks after infection. When present, symptoms include explosive, watery diarrhea that can last for a week or more and, in chronic cases, may persist for months. Because the infection interferes with the body's ability to absorb fats from the intestinal tract, the stool is filled with fat. Other symptoms include foul-smelling and greasy feces, stomach pains, gas and bloating, loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting. In cases in which the infection becomeschronic, lasting for months or years, symptoms might include poor digestion, problems digesting milk, intermittent diarrhea, fatigue, weakness, and significant weight loss.

 

Diagnosis

 

Diagnosis can be difficult because it can be easy to overlook the presence of the giardia cysts during a routine inspection of a stool specimen. In the past, the condition has been diagnosed by examining three stool samples for the presence of the parasites. However, because the organism is shed in some stool samples and not others, the infection may not be discovered using this method.

A newer, more accurate method of diagnosing the condition is the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects cysts and antigen in stool, and is approximately 90% accurate. While slightly more expensive, it only needs to be done once and is therefore less expensive overall than the earlier test.

Treatment

Acute giardiasis can usually be allowed to run its natural course and tends to clear up on its own. Antibiotics are helpful, however, in easing symptoms and preventing the spread of infection. Medications include metronidazole, furazolidone and paromomycin. Healthy carriers with no symptoms do not need antibiotic treatment. If treatment should fail, the patient should wait two weeks and repeat the drug course. Anyone with an impaired immune system (immunocompromised), such as a person with AIDS, may need to be treated with a combination of medications.

 

Prognosis

 

Giardiasis is rarely fatal, and when treated promptly, antibiotics usually cure the infection. While most people respond quickly to treatment, some have lingering symptoms and suffer with diarrhea and cramps for long peri-

ods, losing weight and not growing well. Those most atrisk for a course like this are the elderly, people with a weakened immune system, malnourished children, and anyone with low stomach acid.

 

Prevention

 

The best way to avoid giardiasis is to avoid drinking untreated surface water, especially from mountain streams. The condition also can be minimized by practicing the following preventive measures:

 

  • thoroughly washing hands before handling food
  • maintaining good personal cleanliness
  • boiling any untreated water for at least three minutes
  • properly disposing of fecal material

 

Children with severe diarrhea (and others who are unable to control their bowel habits) should be kept at home until the stool returns to normal. If an outbreak occurs in a daycare center, the director should notify the local health department. Some local health departments require a follow-up stool testing to confirm that the person is no longer contagious. People not in high-risk settings can return to their routine activities after recovery.

 

Resources

 

BOOKS

 

Infectious Disease. Ed. Barbara A. Bannister, et al. Oxford, England: Blackwell Scientific, Inc., 1996.

Turkington, Carol A. Infectious Diseases A to Z. New York: Facts on File, Inc., 1998.

Van De Graaff, Kent. Survey of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases. New York: McGraw Hill, 1996.

Wilks, David, Mark Farrington, and David Rubenstein. The Infectious Diseases Manual. Oxford, England: Blackwell Scientific, Inc., 1995.

 

PERIODICALS

 

Hunter, Beatrice Trum. "Giardiasis: The Most Common Parasitic Infection." Consumers'Research Magazine, 76, no. 4 (Apr. 1993): 8-9.

Moser, Penny Ward. "Danger in Diaperland." In Health, 5, no. 5 (Sept./Oct. 1991).

"Diarrhea and Day Care Centers." Pediatrics for Parents, June 1991: 6.

Springer, Ilene. "The Summer Vacation Health Guide." Ladies Home Journal, 109, no. 7 (July 1992): 54-57.

Tufts editors. "A Backwoods Parasite Heads for Town." Tufts University Health & Nutrition Letter 15, no. 6 (Aug.1997): 3.

 

ORGANIZATIONS

 

    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1600 Clifton Rd., NE, Atlanta, GA 30333. 1(800) 311-3435, (404) 639-3311. <http://www.cdc.gov>.
    • National Institute of Allergies and Infectious Diseases, Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Building 31, Room. 7A-50, 31 Center Drive MSC 2520, Bethesda, MD 20892. <http://www.niaid.nih.gov>.
    • World Health Organization, Division of Emerging and Other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control. Avenue Appia 20, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. (+00 4122) 791 21 11. <http://www.who.int>.

 

OTHER

 

Centers for Disease Control. <http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/eidtext.htm>.

International Society of Travel Medicine. <http://www.istm.org>.

[Article by: Carol A. Turkington]